• Incomplete Universalization? Peruvian Social Policy Reform, Universalism, and Gendered Outcomes
    by NORA NAGELS,  

    This article analyzes Peruvian social reforms of the early 2000s, in relation to the stated goal of increasing universality as well as to their gendered impacts. It argues that three principal limitations inhibited the move to universality and did little to promote gender equality. First, the quality of public service is weak and this has had a particularly adverse impact on women. Second, the reforms have not limited the historical fragmentation of the Peruvian social policy architecture. Finally, social program implementation is still coercive, limiting the reinforcement of social rights based on citizenship for women.